Physics

Optical interferometry

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Description

Title (user) : Optical interferometry

ISBN : 9780080473642,9780123116307,0123116309

DDC : 535/.47/0287

LCC : QC411 .H37 2003

GoogleBook ID : EGdMO3rfVj4C

Edition : 2nd ed

Authors (user) : P. Hariharan

Authors (google) : P. Hariharan

Publisher : Academic Press

Language : English

Publication Date : 2003

File Format : pdf

Categories : Science


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Description (user) :
When the first edition of "Optical Interferometry" was published, interferometry was regarded as a rather esoteric method of making measurements, largely confined to the laboratory. Today, however, besides its use in several fields of research, it has applications in fields as diverse as measurement of length and velocity, sensors for rotation, acceleration, vibration and electrical and magnetic fields, as well as in microscopy and nanotechnology. Most topics are discussed first at a level accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of physical optics, then a more detailed treatment of the topic is undertaken, and finally each topic is supplemented by a reference list of more than 1000 selected original publications in total. * Historical development of interferometry * The laser as a light source * Two-beam interference * Techniques for frequency stabilization * Coherence * Electronic phase measurements * Multiple-beam interference * Quantum effects in optical interference * Extensive coverage of the applications of interferometry, such as measurements of length, optical testing, interference microscopy, interference spectroscopy, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, interferometric sensors, nonlinear interferometers, stellar interferometry, and studies of space-time and gravitation.


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Description (google) :
Nanotechnology, sensor and measurement industries depend on these advances in optical interferometry for accuracy and profitability.


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Table of contents :
front cover......Page 1
copyright......Page 5
table of contents......Page 6
Preface to the First Edition......Page 14
Preface to the Second Edition......Page 16
1.1 The Wave Theory of Light......Page 18
1.3 Measurement of the Metre......Page 19
1.6 Interference Spectroscopy......Page 20
1.8 Electronic Techniques......Page 21
1.11 Nonlinear Interferometers......Page 22
1.12 Stellar Interferometry......Page 23
1.15 Future Directions......Page 24
2. Two-Beam Interference......Page 26
2.1 Complex Representation of Light Waves......Page 27
2.2 Interference of Two Monochromatic Waves......Page 28
2.3 Wavefront Division......Page 29
2.4 Amplitude Division......Page 31
2.5 Localization of Fringes......Page 35
2.6 Two-Beam Interferometers......Page 40
2.7 The Michelson Interferometer......Page 41
2.8 The Mach–Zehnder Interferometer......Page 43
2.9 The Sagnac Interferometer......Page 45
2.11 Channeled Spectra......Page 46
2.12 Achromatic Fringes......Page 48
2.14 Interferential Color Photography......Page 50
3.1 Quasi-Monochromatic Light......Page 52
3.2 Waves and Wave Groups......Page 53
3.3 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity......Page 54
3.4 The Mutual Coherence Function......Page 56
3.5 Spatial Coherence......Page 60
3.6 Temporal Coherence......Page 64
3.7 Coherence Time and Coherence Length......Page 65
3.8 Coherence in the Space-Frequency Domain......Page 66
3.10 Effects in Two-Beam Interferometers......Page 68
3.11 Source-Size Effects......Page 72
3.13 Spectral Changes Due to Coherence......Page 73
3.14 Polarization Effects......Page 74
4.1 Fringes in a Plane-Parallel Plate......Page 76
4.2 Fringes by Reflection......Page 80
4.3 Fringes of Equal Thickness......Page 81
4.4 Fringes of Equal Chromatic Order......Page 83
4.5 Fringes of Superposition......Page 85
4.6 Three-Beam Fringes......Page 90
4.7 Double-Passed Fringes......Page 93
5.1 Lasers for Interferometry......Page 96
5.2 Laser Modes......Page 97
5.3 Comparison of Laser Frequencies......Page 101
5.4 Frequency Stabilization......Page 103
5.5 Laser Beams......Page 108
6.2 Fringe Counting......Page 110
6.3 Heterodyne Interferometry......Page 112
6.4 Phase-Locked Interferometry......Page 113
6.5 Computer-Aided Fringe Analysis......Page 114
6.6 Phase-Shifting Interferometry......Page 115
6.7 Techniques of Phase Shifting......Page 119
6.8 Sinusoidal Phase Modulation......Page 121
7.2 End Standards......Page 122
7.3 The Integral Interference Order......Page 123
7.5 The Refractive Index of Air......Page 124
7.6 The International Prototype Metre......Page 126
7.8 Frequency Measurements......Page 128
7.9 The Definition of the Metre......Page 129
7.10 Length Measurements with Lasers......Page 130
7.12 Displacements......Page 133
7.13 Dynamic Angle Measurements......Page 135
8.1 The Fizeau Interferometer......Page 136
8.2 The Twyman–Green Interferometer......Page 138
8.4 Phase Unwrapping......Page 139
8.5 Analysis of Wavefront Aberrations......Page 140
8.6 Shearing Interferometers......Page 141
8.7 Grating Interferometers......Page 146
8.8 The Scatter-Plate Interferometer......Page 148
8.9 The Point-Diffraction Interferometer......Page 149
8.10 Computerized Test Methods......Page 150
8.11 Aspheric Surfaces......Page 153
8.12 Rough Surfaces......Page 155
8.13 The Optical Transfer Function......Page 156
9.2 Common Path Interference Microscopes......Page 160
9.3 Polarization Interferometers......Page 161
9.4 The Nomarski Interferometer......Page 164
9.5 Electronic Phase Measurements......Page 165
9.7 White-Light Interferometry......Page 168
10.1 Etendue of an Interferometer......Page 174
10.2 The Fabry–Perot Interferometer......Page 175
10.3 The Scanning FPI......Page 176
10.4 The Spherical-Mirror FPI......Page 178
10.5 The Multiple FPI......Page 179
10.7 Birefringent Filters......Page 180
10.8 Wavelength Meters......Page 182
10.10 Measurement of Laser Line Widths......Page 186
10.11 Laser Frequency Standards......Page 187
11.1 The Etendue and Multiplex Advantages......Page 190
11.2 Theory......Page 192
11.3 Resolution and Apodization......Page 195
11.4 Sampling......Page 196
11.5 Effect of Source and Detector Size......Page 197
11.8 Noise......Page 198
11.10 Interferometers for FTS......Page 199
11.12 Applications......Page 201
12.1 Rotation Sensors......Page 206
12.2 Fiber Interferometers......Page 208
12.3 Laser-Feedback Interferometers......Page 215
12.4 Doppler Interferometry......Page 218
12.5 Vibration Measurements......Page 221
12.6 Interferometric Magnetometers......Page 223
12.7 Adaptive Optics......Page 224
13.1 Second-Harmonic Interferometry......Page 226
13.3 Phase-Conjugating Mirrors......Page 230
13.4 Interferometers with Active Elements......Page 233
13.6 Measurement of Third-Order Susceptibility......Page 234
13.7 Optical Switches......Page 236
14.1 Michelson’s Stellar Interferometer......Page 238
14.2 The Intensity Interferometer......Page 240
14.3 Heterodyne Stellar Interferometry......Page 244
14.4 Long-Baseline Stellar Interferometers......Page 247
14.5 Stellar Speckle Interferometry......Page 249
14.6 Speckle Holography......Page 251
14.8 Astrometry......Page 252
14.10 Telescope Arrays......Page 253
15.1 The Michelson–Morley Experiment......Page 256
15.2 Gravitational Waves......Page 258
15.3 Gravitational Wave Detectors......Page 259
15.4 LIGO......Page 262
15.5 The Standard Quantum Limit......Page 263
15.6 Squeezed States of Light......Page 265
15.7 Interferometry Below the SQL......Page 268
16.1 Interference at the “Single-Photon” Level......Page 270
16.3 Sources of Nonclassical Light......Page 271
16.5 Interference with Single-Photon States......Page 273
16.6 The Geometric Phase......Page 274
16.7 Interference with Independent Sources......Page 277
16.8 Superposition States......Page 281
17.1 Nonclassical Fourth-Order Interference......Page 284
17.2 Interference in Separated Interferometers......Page 288
17.3 The Geometric Phase......Page 291
18.1 Tests of Bell’s Inequality......Page 294
18.2 Quantum Cryptography......Page 298
18.3 Beams from Two Down-Converters......Page 299
18.4 The Quantum Eraser......Page 301
18.5 Single-Photon Tunneling......Page 302
18.6 Conclusions......Page 305
A.1 The Fourier Transform......Page 306
A.2 Convolution and Correlation......Page 307
A.4 Random Functions......Page 308
Appendix B: The Fresnel–Kirchhoff Integral......Page 310
C.1 The Fresnel Formulas......Page 312
C.2 The Stokes Relations......Page 313
Appendix D: The Jones Calculus......Page 316
E.2 The Pancharatnam Phase......Page 318
F.1 The Off-Axis Hologram......Page 320
F.2 Computer-Generated Holograms......Page 322
G.1 Speckle Statistics......Page 324
G.2 Young’s Fringes......Page 325
Bibliography......Page 326
References......Page 328
Index......Page 360

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